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Some research has found that there are some cues that may be correlated with deceptive communication, but scholars frequently disagree about the effectiveness of many of these cues to serve as reliable indicators.

Noted deception scholar Aldert Vrij even states that there is no nonverbal behavior that is uniquely associated with deception.

Deception itself is intentionally managing verbal or nonverbal messages so that the message receiver will believe in a way that the message sender knows is false. Intent differentiates between deception and an honest mistake.

The Interpersonal Deception Theory explores the interrelation between communicative context and sender and receiver cognitions and behaviors in deceptive exchanges.

Vrij found that examining a "cluster" of these cues was a significantly more reliable indicator of deception than examining a single cue.

Lying requires deliberate conscious behavior, so listening to speech and watching body language are important factors in detecting lies.

Fear specifically causes heightened arousal in liars, which manifests in more frequent blinking, pupil dilation, speech disturbances, and a higher pitched voice.

The liars that experience guilt have been shown to make attempts at putting distance between themselves and the deceptive communication, producing “nonimmediacy cues” These can be verbal or physical, including speaking in more indirect ways and showing an inability to maintain eye contact with their conversation partners.

As previously stated, a specific behavioral indicator of deception does not exist.

There are, however, some nonverbal behaviors that have been found to be correlated with deception.

In the realm of deceptive half-truths, camouflage is realized by 'hiding' some of the truths.

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