Pressure sore risk validating an assessment tool www datingnexus com

Wolverton and associates26 evaluated 422 patients in a medical/surgical ICU; they identified 92% as being at risk for PU, including 41% at high or very high risk, but the reported incidence of PU was 14%. This "overprediction" may represent a flaw in the risk assessment tool or it may reflect the positive effects of PU-prevention measures; this issue will be addressed in greater detail.

A summary of the studies included in this review can be found in Table 1. Validation of pressure ulcer risk assessment scales: a critique.

The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk10 measures cumulative risk for PU development based on 7 risk factors measured on 6 subscales (Sensory Perception, Activity, Mobility, Moisture, Nutrition, and Friction/Shear) and is based on the conceptual schema developed by Braden and Bergstrom.27 Subscale scores range from 1 to 4 with the exception of the Friction/Shear subscale, which ranges from 1 to 3.

In 2008, the Health Care Cost and Utilization Project cited an 80% increase in PU occurrence between the years 19 in hospitalized adult patients, with total associated costs estimated at $11 billion (US dollars).2 From 2008 to 2009, there was a slight decrease in the overall prevalence of hospital-acquired PUs.

Nevertheless, prevalence rates in the ICU remained the highest among hospitalized patients, ranging from 9% to 42%.3-5 In 2009, 3.3% of critical care patients developed deep tissue injuries or stage III, IV, or unstageable ulcers.5 Pressure ulcer prevention has long been a major focus of patient care. Prevention and early detection of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients: commentary.

Wolverton and colleagues26 found lower Braden Scale scores in their sample of 422 critical care patients who developed PUs; however, their analysis was limited to descriptive statistics.

In contrast, a study of 40 medical ICU patients25 found no significant difference in Braden Scale scores between patients who did and did not develop PUs.

The computerized databases of EBSCO-CINAHL and EBSCO-MEDLINE were searched using the terms Journal hand searching and ancestry searching were also used as search techniques.

Inclusion criteria established for this review included (1) peer reviewed and published reports on PU risk factors in adult critical care patients that included the Braden Scale and/or subscales as variables and (2) studies conducted from 1995 to present. MASD part 2: incontinence-associated dermatitis and intertriginous dermatitis: a consensus.

Each subscale score is clearly defined by narrative descriptors that assist the clinician to accurately "match" the patient's status to the correct subscale level.

Pressure ulcer risk is based on a summated score of 6 to 23, with lower scores indicating greater risk. Acute and Chronic Wounds: Current Management Concepts.

In order to more precisely quantify risk in the critically ill population, modification of the Braden Scale or development of a critical care specific risk assessment tool may be indicated. Nutritional interventions for preventing and treating pressure ulcers.

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