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The contemporary Polish Jewish community is estimated to have approximately 20,000 members, The first Jews arrived in the territory of modern Poland in the 10th century.By travelling along the trade routes leading eastwards to Kiev and Bukhara, Jewish merchants, known as Radhanites, crossed the areas of Silesia.left the People's Republic of Poland for the nascent State of Israel and North or South America.

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The first actual mention of Jews in Polish chronicles occurs in the 11th century.

It appears that Jews were then living in Gniezno, at that time the capital of the Polish kingdom of the Piast dynasty.

After the fall of the Communist regime in 1989, the situation of Polish Jews became normalized and those who were Polish citizens before World War II were allowed to renew Polish citizenship.

Religious institutions were revived, largely through the activities of Jewish foundations from the United States.

At the start of World War II, Poland was partitioned between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (see Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact).

One-fifth of the Polish population perished during World War II, half of them were 3,000,000 Polish Jews murdered in The Holocaust, constituting 90% of Polish Jewry.

Among the first Jews to arrive in Poland (in 1097 or 1098) were those banished from Prague.

The first extensive Jewish emigration from Western Europe to Poland occurred at the time of the First Crusade in 1098.

With the consent of the class representatives and higher officials, in 1264 he issued a General Charter of Jewish Liberties, the Statute of Kalisz, which granted all Jews the freedom of worship, trade and travel.

Similar privileges were granted to the Silesian Jews by the local princes, Prince Henry Probus of Wrocław in 1273–90, Henry of Glogow in 12, Henry of Legnica in 1290 – 95 and Bolko of Legnica and Wrocław in 1295.

For example, they could define their neighborhoods and economic competitors and set up monopolies.

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