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In a study of German women who experiences IPV when pregnant, Stockl and Gardner found that most women understood that the pregnancy was a negative turning point in the relationship.
Men acted violently towards their pregnant partners for the following reasons: difficult financial or living situation, questioning relationship commitment, changing role expectations and sexual needs, adverse childhood experiences, jealously towards the unborn child, and unwanted pregnancies.
In such cases, "[o]ne partner, usually a man, controls virtually every aspect of the victim's, usually a woman's, life." Johnson reported in 2001 that 97% of the perpetrators of intimate terrorism were men.
The victims of one type of abuse are often the victims of other types of abuse.
Other mental health consequences are anxiety, substance abuse, and low-self esteem.
A 2014 study on the mental health effects of intimate partner terrorism found that 42% of women reported thoughts of suicide and 31% had attempted it.
Of the four types, situational couple violence and mutual violent control are reciprocal, while intimate terrorism is non-reciprocal.
Violent resistance on its own is non-reciprocal, but is in face reciprocal when in response to intimate terrorism. Johnson argues for four major types of intimate partner violence (Johnson's Typology), Intimate terrorism, or coercive controlling violence, occurs when one partner in a relationship uses coercive control and power over the other partner, using threats, intimidation, and isolation.
The most common but less injurious form of intimate partner violence is "situational couple violence" (also known as "situational violence"), which is conducted by individuals of both genders nearly equally, Intimate partner violence occurs between two people in an intimate relationship.
It may occur between heterosexual or homosexual couples and victims can be male or female.
As a result, the issue is not solely about violence against women, but about "violent people" or "violent couples".
It also led to further research to better understand the situations within violent homes. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cautions that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against screening.
Researchers have also found different outcomes in men and women in response to intimate partner violence.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating