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There is little dispute that the demise of the tribute system was brought about by the introduction of the treaty system in China’s international relations after the Opium War in 1840, with the conclusion of the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842.

It is a matter of intense debate how stable and uniform the tribute system was throughout China’s tumultuous dynastic histories and whether its existence was highly precarious, with occasional breakdowns and constant reconfigurations.

He 1998 is a brief but well-rounded discussion of the historical Chinese world order as an international system in East Asia.

Kang 2010 focuses on the operation of the tribute system among China and three Sinic states—namely, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam—and offers a non-Sinocentric perspective on the tribute system.

The origins of the tribute system and the ideas, values, and beliefs underlying its construction and operation are often traced back to ancient China as an Axial Age civilization.

There is also broad agreement that a tribute system of a sort existed and operated to regulate China’s trade and diplomacy with its neighbors at least as far back as the Han dynasty (206 ).

Zhang 2009 contains criticism of the conceptual deficiency of the tribute system with regard to understanding traditional China’s international relations.

Zhang and Buzan 2012 deals with the integration of historical studies of the tribute system into the theorization of international relations.

The color animal is to count the every single solar day.

At the beginning color animal counts only for the day.

It is not clear, however, whether those participating in the Chinese world order actually accept the civilizational assumptions embedded in the tribute system and the Sinocentric conception of superiority and inferiority in their relationship.

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